When running the Python interpreter, if you get an error like:
Traceback (most recent call last): File "/opt/docutils-2008aug06/bin/rst2html.py", line 17, in ? from docutils.core import publish_cmdline, default_description ImportError: No module named docutils.core
It will be necessary to tell your interpreter where to look for modules. In
the above example, I installed docutils in
. So I
UnicodeDecodeError: 'ascii' codec can't decode ...
If you get an error like:
UnicodeDecodeError: 'ascii' codec can't decode byte 0xc3 in position 16: ordinal not in range(128)
This can have several reasons.
Stack Overflow: UnicodeDecodeError when redirecting to file
And I strongly recommend the "Pragmatic Unicode", by Ned Batchelder, that explains this really fine. This is a 40 min and worthwhile presentation.
In summary, why these commands have different output?
$ python2.7 -c "import sys; print sys.stdout.encoding" . UTF-8 $ python2.7 -c "import sys; print sys.stdout.encoding" | cat None
My terminal encoding is UTF-8 and my program works fine. But when I pipe the output or redirect it to a file, Python cannot discover the encoding I want to. So the variable is set to None and, when a UTF-8 encoding needs to be converted, it tries to convert to the ASCII encoding which, obviously, cannot represent all characters in UTF-8.
Ned Batchelder recommends to always work with encoding and decoding of UTF-8 strings (see that, in Python 2, a UTF-8 string is a different type of object than a normal string) or to either change your default encoding at the very beginning of your program. This can be done in different ways , like:
import sys reload(sys) sys.setdefaultencoding('UTF8')
Stack Overflow: Changing default encoding of Python?
Or using the
PYTHONIOENCODING environment variable:
$ PYTHONIOENCODING=UTF-8 python2.7 -c "import sys; print sys.stdout.encoding" | cat UTF-8